In the Japanese community, it's often tied with the term ukemi (受身, lit. "Passive Landing"), a martial arts term for falling safely. This is due to the most common form of tech being used to recover from a variety of knockdown situations.
A quick stand is when a character stands up immediately after knockdown. It is usually executed by pressing "Down" or hitting any two buttons at the moment the character hits the ground. With the exception of KOs, throws pre-Street Fighter V, and attacks that inflict untechable knockdowns, the quick stand can be done anytime the player is knocked down.
A throw technical is used to escape throws. The execution varies by game. Introduced in the Street Fighter III series, a throw tech can be executed by throwing (i.e. pressing light kick and light punch) around the same time as the opponent. Both fighters will be pushed back an equal distance and rendered inactive for a certain amount of frames, depending on the timing. If one player's throw was executed before the other, they gain a frame advantage and come out of the 'pushed' state faster.
The mechanic returns in Street Fighter IV and Street Fighter X Tekken, and is referred to as a Throw Escape in the latter. Street Fighter X Tekken also has a Gem that will automatically perform Throw Escapes for the user at the cost of some of the Cross Gauge.